Dengue fever

Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral infection, has emerged as a significant public health concern in many parts of the world. This article delves into the symptoms and causes of dengue fever, shedding light on the intricacies of this disease that can help you better understand its impact and take necessary precautions.

Understanding Dengue Fever

Dengue fever, caused by the dengue virus and transmitted primarily by the Aedes mosquito, is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. The virus exists in four distinct serotypes, each capable of causing the illness. While the majority of dengue infections result in mild symptoms, severe cases can lead to dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, both of which can be life-threatening.

Symptoms of Dengue Fever

  1. Fever: Sudden high fever is often the first sign of dengue infection. It can be accompanied by chills and severe headache.
  2. Severe Joint and Muscle Pain: Intense joint and muscle pain, which is why dengue is also referred to as “breakbone fever.”
  3. Rash: A rash may appear a few days after the fever sets in, spreading across the body.
  4. Pain Behind the Eyes: Pain, particularly in the eye region, is a distinctive symptom.
  5. Fatigue: Dengue can lead to prolonged fatigue and weakness, affecting daily activities.
  6. Nausea and Vomiting: Nausea and vomiting are common, often leading to dehydration.
  7. Bleeding: In some cases, dengue can cause nosebleeds, gum bleeding, or easy bruising.

Severe Cases – Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome

While most dengue cases are mild, a small percentage progresses to severe forms. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is characterized by severe bleeding, low platelet count, and plasma leakage. This condition can be fatal without prompt medical intervention. Dengue shock syndrome involves a sudden drop in blood pressure, leading to organ failure and shock.

Causes of Dengue Fever

  1. Aedes Mosquito: The primary vector responsible for transmitting the virus is the Aedes mosquito, primarily the Aedes aegypti species. These mosquitoes thrive in urban areas and breed in stagnant water.
  2. Multiple Serotypes: Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes (DEN-1 to DEN-4), all of which can cause the disease. Exposure to one serotype provides lifelong immunity to that specific serotype but only short-term immunity to others.
  3. Global Travel: International travel can contribute to the spread of dengue, as infected individuals can carry the virus to new regions where the Aedes mosquito is present.
  4. Climate Change: Changes in climate, such as increased temperatures and altered rainfall patterns, can expand the geographical range of the Aedes mosquito, leading to the emergence of dengue in new areas.

Prevention and Control

Preventing dengue fever involves both individual and community efforts:

  • Eliminate Breeding Sites: Regularly empty and clean containers that can collect stagnant water, as these serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
  • Use Mosquito Repellent: Apply mosquito repellents on exposed skin to reduce the risk of mosquito bites.
  • Wear Protective Clothing: Wearing long-sleeved clothing and pants can provide an additional layer of protection.
  • Mosquito Nets: Sleeping under mosquito nets, especially in areas with high mosquito activity, can prevent bites.
  • Community Engagement: Communities can organize efforts to reduce mosquito breeding sites, such as cleaning up discarded containers and promoting proper waste disposal.


Dengue fever is a significant global health concern that requires vigilance and proactive measures. By understanding the symptoms, causes, and preventive strategies, individuals and communities can work together to minimize the spread of this disease. As we navigate an interconnected world, staying informed and taking preventive actions are crucial to mitigating the impact of dengue fever.